As we know that environmental science is a multidisciplinary subject which means that Principles and approaches of environmental science are applicable in several areas of development.
Three major areas of applicability of the subject are
(i) management of natural resources,
(ii) conservation of ecosystem and biodiversity,
(iii) prevention and control of pollution.
In addition, environmental science plays an indispensable role in developing an understanding of complex environmental issues by connecting the dots and proposeing a solution, such as the climate change, ozone layer depletion, energy crisis, desertification, urbanization, population explosion, and so on.
The scope of the subject in terms of career opportunities is fairly vast. therefore has been considered to be associated with a number of career opportunities. Major career options related to the subject can be described as follows:
• Industries: Industries need to show compliance against a number of environmental norms. Hence, environment experts are needed to guide the industries for adopting clean technologies, controlling pollution, disposing the wastes, and carrying out environmental audit.
• Consultancy: Environment consultancies are hired by governments, industries, and NGOs for carrying out different types of laboratory-based analyses or field-based studies, which are often required in environment impact assessment (EIA) and other compliance processes.
• Research and development (R&D): R&D opportunities in this area include studying different types of pollution and their causes and effects. It also includes development of clean and efficient technologies for future. Scientists, researchers, and analysts are some of the common career profiles.
• Academics: Environmental science is now taught at almost every level of education, that is, from school to university level. A large number of teachers or academicians are required to fulfil this need.
• Green marketing: Skilled manpower is required to promote eco-friendly products in market. Environmental quality certifications like ISO-14000 are also being incorporated in marketing strategy—this creates additional career opportunities.
• Green media: In order to generate awareness about the environment, there is an immense need for skilled manpower in the field of print and electronic media. A number of magazines and newspapers regularly publish articles on environmental theme, for example, Down to Earth, a magazine published by Centre for Science and Environment.
• Green advocacy: Environmental lawyers are emerging as major players in ensuring proper implementation of environmental norms, laws, and programmes. Public Interest Litigation (PIL) empowers a common man to fight against any anti-environment activity.
• NGOs: These days, most of the environmental programs are being implemented through NGOs, with the help of funds from national and international agencies. Green-peace, CI, WWF, CSE, CEE, TERI, Tarun Bharat Sangh, and Vatavaran are some examples of environmental NGOs.
• Government jobs: A number of conventional jobs are available in government bodies such as environmental ministry, pollution control boards, national parks, and biosphere reserves.
• International agencies: Various international agencies such as UNEP, IUCN, TSBF, and World Bank require qualified human resources to implement environment-related projects.